July 11, 2020

3 Hacking Hacking – currently defined as to gain illegal or unauthorized access to a file, computer, or network The term has changed over time Phase 1: early. 1 A Gift of Fire Third edition Sara Baase Chapter 4: Intellectual Property Original Slides prepared by Cyndi Chie and Sarah Frye Adapted by Enas Naffar for use. What We Will Cover Rapid Pace of Change New Developments and Dramatic Impacts Issues and Themes Ethics.

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We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Published by Andrew Hodge Baaes over 3 years ago. Freedom from intrusion being left alone Control of information about oneself Freedom from surveillance being tracked, followed, watched Original Slides prepared by Cyndi Chie and Sarah Frye Adapted by Enas Naffar for use in Computing Ethics course —Philadelphia university.

Government and private databases Thousands of databases containing personal information about us. Profiles of our personal information could be created easily. Vulnerability of data – Leaks of data happens, existence of data presents a risk. Search query data Editino engines collect many terabytes of data daily.

A Gift of Fire Sara Baase Chapter 6: Work Third edition

Data is analyzed to target advertising and develop new services. Who gets to see this data? Why should we care? A terabyte is a trillion bytes. Search query data can be subpoenaed in court.

Data in phones are vulnerable to loss, hacking, and misuse. This is a reminder that designers must regularly review and update security design decisions.

Anything we do in cyberspace is recorded. Huge amounts of data are stored. People are not aware of collection of data. A collection of small items can ffire a detailed picture. Re-identification has become much easier due to the quantity of information and power of data search and analysis tools. Sada information is on a public Baaxe site, it is available to everyone. Information on the Internet seems to last forever.

Data collected for one purpose will find other uses. Government can request sensitive personal data held by businesses or organizations. We cannot directly protect information about ourselves. We depend upon businesses and organizations to protect it.

Terminology and principles for data collection and use: Principles for Data Collection and Use: Informed consent People should be informed about the data collection and use policies of a business or organization, They can then decide whether or not to interact with that business or organization.

Signs a form permitting the use. Under opt-in policy, the collector of information may not use it for other purposes unless the consumer explicitly permits the use. How were they worded? Were any of them deceptive? What are some common elements of privacy policies you have read? If the class doesn’t mention it, make sure to mention that online opt-in choices may be pre-checked and require you un-checking the box to avoid opting in.


Be sure to mention the “subject to change without notice” clause found in most privacy policies.

A Gift of Fire Third edition Sara Baase – ppt download

Fair Information Principles or Practices Inform about personally identifiable information Collect only data needed Saraa opt-out fromadvertising, etc Stronger protection of sensitive data Keep data only as long as needed Maintain accuracy of data Policies for responding to law enforcement Protect security of data. Government agencies collect many types of information Ask business to report about consumers Buy personal information from sellers Main publicized reason: Private information can be used to: Millions of crime suspects are searched in government databases Shift from presumption of innocence to presumption of guilt Computer software characterizes suspects – Innocent people are sometimes subject to embarrassing searches and expensive investigations and to arrest and jail.

Some constitution articles laws protect privacy. Modern surveillance techniques are redefining expectation of privacy. What privacy is included in those laws?

Much of our personal information is no longer safe in our homes; it resides in huge databases outside our control.

New technologies allow the editiion to search our homes without entering them and search our persons from a distance without our knowledge.

Security cameras in Shopping centers, malls, banks, etc. Cameras alone raise some privacy issues. When being combined with face recognition systems, they raise more privacy issues. Discussion Questions What data does the government have about you?

Who has access to the data? How is your data protected?

Use the list in Fig. Probe for what concerns the class may have about the data that is collected. Targeted and personalized marketing business, political parties, etc Paying for consumer information Examples Trading data to win prizes Targeting ads to users by scanning their s!

When Facebook began telling members about purchases their friends made, problems ranged from spoiling surprise gifts to embarrassing and worrisome disclosures.

Or should the company announce them and let members opt in with a click? Global Positioning Systems GPS – computer or communication services that know exactly where a person is at a particular time Cell phones and other devices are used for location tracking Pros and cons Original Slides prepared by Cyndi Chie and Sarah Frye Adapted by Enas Naffar for use in Computing Ethics course —Philadelphia university.

Stolen and Lost Data: Hackers Physical theft laptops, thumb-drives, etc. Requesting information under false pretenses Bribery of employees who have access Except for hackers, these are not new to computer technology.

Before computers, files were stolen, receipts were stolen, information was requested under false pretenses and employees were bribed. But, with computers, the extent and impact have grown. What We Do Ourselves: Some people do not know or understand enough how the web works in order to make good decisions about what to put there. Some people do not think carefully. People often want a lot of information about others but do not want others to have access to the same kind of information about themselves.


Our cell phone and messages reside on computers outside our home or office.

We have no direct control over such files. There have been many incidents of exposure of s for politicians, businessmen, etc. Personal yhird in blogs and online profiles Pictures of ourselves and our families File sharing and storing Is privacy old-fashioned? Young people put less value on privacy than previous generations. May not understand the risks.

A Gift of Fire Sara Baase Chapter 6: Work Third edition

Public Records – records available to general public bankruptcy, property, and arrest records, salaries of government employees, etc. Identity theft can arise when public records are accessed How should we control access to sensitive public records?

Should parents tell children about the tracking devices and services they are using? Informed consent is a basic principle for adults. At what age does it apply to children? Will parents rely more on gadgets than on talking to their children?

Gift of Fire, A: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computing and the Internet, 3rd Edition

Why did you remove it? Were there consequences to posting the information? Have you seen information that others have posted about themselves that you would not reveal about yourself? We can decide to what extent we wish to use privacy-protecting tools.

We can be more careful about the information we give out, and the privacy policies of sites we use or visit. Privacy-enhancing technologies for consumers New applications of technology often can solve problems that arise as side effects of technology.

Using usernames and passwords for Blogs visitors familyfriends, etc. Encryption Information sent to and from websites can be intercepted.

Someone who steals a computer or hacks into it can view files on it. Encryption is a technology that transforms data into a form that that is meaningless to anyone who might intercept or view it.

Encryption Encryption generally includes a coding scheme, or cryptography algorithm, and specific sequences of characters digits or letters. An encryption scheme, where two related keys are used. Business tools and policies for protecting privacy Well- designed database. Using privacy audits to check for leaks of information, review the company’s privacy policyetc. Some large companies like IBM and Microsoft, use their economic influence to improve consumer privacy on the web, by removing ads from their web sites.

Theories Warren and Brandeis: The inviolate personality Warren and Brandeis criticized newspapers especially for the gossip columns. People have the right to prohibit publications of facts and photos about themselves. Libel, slander and defamation laws protect us when someone spreads false and damaging rumors about us. But they do not apply to true personal information.

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