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Unsustainable wood extraction ranks among the number one direct causes of deforestation and forest degradation.
In fact, timber harvesting is currently the most common commercial utilisation activity in tropical forests and it has been identified as one of the major threats to global vertebrate diversity. As a result of its paramount role in altering tropical forest ecosystems it has recently been brought at a centre stage in discussions on biodiversity mainstreaming and the development of new concepts aimed at bringing increasing deforestation to a halt.
Since their first appearance approximately million years ago, this group has evolved into what could be the most diverse group of tetrapod vertebrates. Currently, more than 7, amphibian species are recognized. Despite this alleged evolutionary success story, many amphibian species throughout the world are facing severe population declines or even extinction.
Due to their physiology, mostly short generation times, and predominantly biphasic lifecycle, amphibians are particularly sensitive with respect to habitat changes and altered microclimatic conditions that accompany these changes. These changes in biodiversity alter ecosystem processes and change the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change. This has profound consequences for services that humans derive from ecosystems.
Recent studies suggest that declining biodiversity and habitat alteration synergistically influence the predictability of ecosystem functioning.
Amphibians play a pivotal role in the functioning of ecosystems and they support many ecosystem services ESSparticularly in regions recently undergoing dramatic land use changes.
At the same time this diverse vertebrate group is particularly susceptible to environmental degradation and experiences dramatic global population declines. Within the scope of the bi-national interdisciplinary project arbeit relevanz sinnhaftigkeit INNOVATE funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, we investigate the impact of land-use and climate change on the amphibian and reptile diversity of the Itaparica reservoir, a antrrag impacted Caatinga xerix shrubland and dry forest area located in the northeastern part of Brazil.
A paramount ESS in these human-impacted ecosystems is biological pest control by vertebrate predators, in case of the Caatinga biome, particularly mostly opportunistic amphibian and reptile predators.
We will therefore analyze the links between amphibian and reptile diversity and arthropod-pest species abundance along an existing land use gradient. Other species of the genus have become invasive on oceanic islands such as Hawaii where they pose serious biological and economical problems.
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In this project we assess the actual status and invasion potential of the introduced E. Field uaf studies are complemented by detailed quasi-experimental studies on introduced greenhouse populations in several European botanical gardens, in which frogs were introduced both deliberately and unintentionally via plants from original field localities. Laurent du Maroni, Fr.
It has therefore become one of the verkehrsunfall heute mv in Central Europe and is now listed as endangered within most of its Central European range. Many declines were caused by massive habitat destruction and intensive land use during recent years.
The continuous modification of landscapes by human activities leads to the damage and loss of natural habitats as well as to their fragmentation. The European tree frog is particularly prone to fragmentation of suitable habitats, i.
Although conservation areas have been safeguarded in many countries, they often are spatially isolated remnants in otherwise intensively used landscapes.
Alg. – definition and meaning
Isolation and fragmentation prevent the species from migrating and may furthermore lead to increased genetic subdivision of populations, higher inbreeding and the loss of genetic diversity within populations. Populations in the area are known to be fragmented but it is not understood whether this is due to historical distribution and dispersal patterns or recent fragmentation of habitats.
In a synthetic approach that combines population ecological habitat models and meta-population analysis and population genetic micro satellites methods, we aim at resolving current distribution patterns and elucidating the population structure in order to provide crucial data needed for potential reintroduction efforts. The Guyana based organisation Iwokrama International Centre for Rainforest Conservation and Development hilfe wimmelbild bibliothekan international not-for-profit organisation that was existenzgrnderzuschuxs by the Government of Guyana and anfrag Commonwealth Secretariat aims at fostering this decision making process by providing crucial impulses to the debate.
The organisation manages nearly one million acresha of abtrag GS rainforest with the aims of testing the concept of a truly sustainable forest, where conservation, environmental balance and economic use can be mutually reinforcing.
This concept includes sustainable forestry e. NonTimberForestProducts, selective logging as exishenzgrnderzuschuss as ecotourism. The latter is often hailed as one of the few indisputable examples of sustainable development at work because it is not only compatible with biodiversity existezgrnderzuschuss but it also generates economic revenue from land set aside for nature protection.
Moreover, ecotourism can help to educate the general public on conservation issues and thereby supports a better management of protected areas. We particularly assess the population status of two species of the frog genera Atelopus and Allobates and evaluate their potential as conservation flagship species.
The project seeks to combine population ecological and conservation genetic analyses of the target species with public awareness aspects within the scope of a scientifically founded feasibility study. However, due to an assumed link with the large Congolese Forest Bioregion and their unique position within the range of Angolan ecosystems they promise to harbour an exceptionally existezngrnderzuschuss herpetofauna.
At the same time they are facing immense pressures from increasing deforestation and fragmentation. We are currently conducting rapid auff assessments to generate basic faunistic data through field observations, bioacoustic existenzgrnderzuschuds and DNA barcoding that will ultimately contribute to a better understanding of northern Angolan forest biodiversity.
Whereas evolutionary biologists traditionally focus on understanding genetic diversity within populations, while frequently ignoring ecological processes of species assembly in communities, ecologists often focus on understanding community dynamics and usually ignore evolution.
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This historic and somewhat artificial separation of disciplines has significantly impeded the development of a more comprehensive and profound understanding of biodiversity and its importance for ecosystem functioning and the multiple services that ecosystems provide. Traits sensu lato are indeed key to advances in many fields of the natural sciences and trait-based analyses may in fact represent the only viable approach for community ecology to produce general principles and make sound predictions of community assembly and ecosystem functioning.
In aiming for a unified theory of biodiversity, an integration of research between the two disciplines seems inevitable. Recent advances in analytical and computational procedures and an exponential increase in available phylogenetic data provide ideal conditions for both disciplines to merge again.
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The region has long been recognized as one of the major Pleistocene refugia for the Pan-Amazon region. More precisely, it has probably hosted multiple refugia during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene, rather then a single refugium, as previously assumed. Species distributions and distributional boundaries, as well as their evolutionary histories remain largely unknown. In several cooperative projects we address the problems of unresolved phylogeographic patterns, cryptic species complexes and refugial theory within the framework of an integrative approach molecular, ecological, bioacoustic, morphological.
Stubfoot toads Atelopus spp.
And an essential part of our work is therefore alpha-taxonomy, i. These descriptions represent the backbone of modern biodiversity studies as in many cases the species is the unit of interest.
Our field work has resulted in a number of new descriptions, among them some inconspicuous yet ecologically amazing species, such as the recently described cuckooing frog Allobates spumaponens. In this species, the male carries the tadpoles on its back and eventually drops them in the foam nests of syntopic leptodactylid frogs. This is the only case of interspecific brood parasitism in the entire animal kingdom, in which the male parent is the acting parasite.
Copeia, Lawrence, 3: Herpetological Journal, London, Journal of Herpetology, St. Breviora Museum of Comparative Zoology African Journal of Herpetology Amietia pferde zu verkaufen.