Title, Vocabulario da psicanalise. Author, Jean Laplanche. Edition, 2. Publisher, Martins Fontes, ISBN, , Length, pages. Vocabulário da psicanálise by Jean Laplanche · Vocabulário da psicanálise. by Jean Laplanche; J B Pontalis; Fundação Dorina Nowill para Cegos. Print book. RESUMO:A especificidade da linguagem na psicanálise. O artigo tem LAPLANCHE J. & PONTALIS J.B. () Dicionário de psicanálise. São Paulo.
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Recent studies have stressed the importance of disseminating behavior analysis to a more diverse audience and have provided ways to do so effectively. General science publications offer an attractive venue for communicating with a scientifically educated public. Behavior analytic terms were searched in issues published from todicionarioo with psychoanalytic terms as a comparative measure.
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Only 13 behavior analysis articles were found, while psychoanalytic articles totaled Six of the behavior analysis articles misconstrue fundamental concepts of behavior analysis. The study recommends that behavior analysis researchers extend the dissemination of their findings outside the box. It has been more than eight decades since Skinner established the foundations for the science of behavior analysis Skinner, By taking a closer look at the antecedents to consequences of present and past behaviors and their contingencies, behavior analysis has broken with the ancient custom of seeking behavioral causes within individuals and introduced a revolutionary way of thinking into psychology.
In view of the potential social impact of such a circumstantial approach, it is reasonable to ask how, when, and whether the findings of behavior analysis BA research are being disseminated to the broad spectrum that could benefit from them. At the same time, it is important to note that the discipline itself can be positively affected by disseminating its findings to a more diverse audience, in other words, by getting out of its box. Such findings encouraged the behavioral study of self-control, a line of research that has proven invaluable Rachlin, Following this path, wider dissemination may yield at least three highly desirable outcomes.
First, it can empower BA scholars in academic and political settings by highlighting the relevance of their research. Second, it can enhance the impact of their published work among scholars from different disciplines interested in the topics they treat.
Finally, it can expand employment opportunities for behavior analysts based on increased public acceptance of their approach to dealing with social challenges Michael, ; Normand, ; Schlinger, a. Despite the evident benefits of wider dissemination, however, behavior analysis has a paradoxical history in this regard, as shown in a detailed historical analysis by Cruz in press. On the other, since its foundation, behavior analysis has been haunted by the specter of isolation Catania, ; Herrnstein, ; Laties,; Lindsley, ; Skinner, As a consequence, critics of the former have characterized BA as a closed, restrictive, and even perishing community Hearst, ; Rutherford, ; Wendt,although some have rebutted such claims Roediger, Recently, ten articles reflecting on the benefits and challenges of disseminating BA research were published.
Becirevic surveyed respondents on BA social media websites and found many agree that it is imperative to address misrepresentations and misunderstandings of their field. They failed, however, to indicate any concrete steps to do so effectively. In response, three experts shared maxims for dealing with BA misunderstandings, e.
Another expert highlighted the importance of high-quality graduate training in developing communication skills Schlinger, b. Another five case studies address the benefits and challenges of publishing outside the box. The authors provide valuable advice and indicate pertinent publications for BA researchers to consider in disseminating their findings to a more diverse audience Morris, ; Reed, One option to reach scholars from different fields is to publish articles in scientific journals of other disciplines Friman, b.
Another, targeting an even broader readership, is to publish books in the popular press that provide a comprehensive panorama of BA principles and procedures in language that is more accessible than the abstruse jargon that too often marks scientific literature Vyse, Yet another option that could reach both scholars and well-educated laymen is to disseminate BA advances via general science publications, magazines, and newspapers Schlinger, a.
General science publications are particularly attractive venues given that their readership is largely composed of scholars, practitioners from diverse disciplines, and other readers interested in science.
Among Brazilian general science publications, two merit particular attention: Science Today and Research Fapesp. Considering only national publications, a search of the principal BA journal and book databases viz. With this contrast of growth and isolation in mind, it is reasonable to assume that Brazilian behavior analysts have relevant material to share with a broader audience and could benefit from doing so.
Moreover, as previously indicated, Science Today and Research Fapesp are optimal venues to achieve these ends. While two issues from the former numbers and were not analyzed due to problems in the database, the remaining and all issues from the latter were analyzed. Occurrences that did not relate substantively to behavior analysis, e. Twelve commonly used technical terms behavior, behaviorism, behavioral therapy, cognition, conditioning, contingency, operant, punishment, reflex, reinforcement, respondent, stimulus control and four leading researchers Hull, Skinner, Tolman, Watson were selected.
Only two technical terms behavior, behaviorism and one researcher Skinner were found in all retrieved instances. Accordingly, these terms were searched in the issues of Science Today and Research Fapesp. As a comparative measure, using terms common to psychoanalysis derived from a psychoanalytic vocabulary index Laplanche, and a general dictionary Houaiss,viz.
The occurrences were grouped into four categories: When a disagreement occurred, it was discussed and the article was included only if both observers concurred. The rate of agreement was calculated by dividing total agreements by total agreements plus disagreements, and the result converted to a percentage. Percentage disciplines in found occurrences on Science Today and Research Fapesp. The letter elucidates the advantages of identifying science as the behavior of scientists in relation to measurable and controllable environmental contingencies Dal Ben, Zorzetto reports advances in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, in which the use of medication and behavioral therapy is the recommended practice for changing how a person perceives and acts out the disorder.
Zolnerkevic reports findings from a collaborative endeavor among Brazilian and Australian researchers on differing abilities to perform simple and conditional discriminations by diverse species of bees that raise questions regarding the role of survival contingencies in such distinctions. In so doing, it recognizes her efforts to enhance teaching methods for spreading scientific critical thinking to the general public, which, she believed, is the primary social contribution of science.
The number of psychoanalytic articles published during the study period was 6. An average of 4. In some years, for Science Today and for Research Fapespthe number of psychoanalytic articles spiked; however, no specific reasons for this occurrence, such as a special section or issue, were identified. Psychoanalytic mentions were present in virtually all sections of both publications Articles, Interviews, Letters, Memory, Research, Tales, etc. In summary, during the study period, there was only one published article reporting BA basic research findings Zolnerkevic,one letter to the editor describing BA approaches Dal Ben,and two articles related to BA as a means of clinical and educational intervention Zorzetto, ; FAPESP, arespectively.
In view of the dearth of published articles on scientific and technological advancements derived from the operant paradigm, unanswered misinterpretations, and the disproportion between psychoanalytic and behavior analysis representation, it is reasonable to suggest that behavior analysts have underused Science Today and Research Fapesp as outlets for disseminating BA research to a broader audience.
Critics might present at least four arguments suggesting limitations to the present study. First, it is possible that the selected terms did not retrieve all BA and psychoanalytic articles. Second, the study may not provide a comprehensive picture of BA dissemination in Brazil, given its focus on general science media, while excluding other dissemination strategies, such as publishing in journals from other disciplines or popular press books.
Third, the topics addressed by the publications analyzed in the study may be unrelated to subjects of interest to behavior analysis, dicionatio limiting opportunities for dissemination. Fourth, comparing publication of BA and psychoanalytic research may be misplaced as instances of the latter likely exceed those of the former for several reasons, such as greater number of researchers, studies, and broader acceptance in the popular culture.
Such tools, however, are not culturally relevant to Brazil peicanalise their sources are based on a culture quite distinct from its own. Furthermore, as previously delineated, the search terms used were selected on the basis of analysis of relevant indexes and their efficacy was tested in pilot searches. Nonetheless, no substantive change in the low dissemination scenario presented in this study would be anticipated.
However, as previously mentioned, at least ten articles ppsicanalise BA dissemination strategies intending to equip and stimulate behavior analysts to augment such scarce endeavors have been published Becirevic, ; Normand, In response to the third argument, a random search on any issue of the surveyed publications will reveal several topics to which behavior analysis could contribute, such as climate change, aging, memory, language, human development, evolution, and cultural organization.
Despite this record, however, psychoanalysts were the only representatives of the psychology profession selected for interviews. In regard to the premises posited in the fourth argument concerning disproportionate coverage of psychoanalytic versus BA research in the general science publications reviewed, three dimensions may help frame our analysis: Given that both behavior analysis and psychoanalysis are psychological approaches that guide professional practice in Brazil, the most direct way to measure the relative numbers of their practitioners would be to consult the affiliation directory of the Brazilian Federal Council of Psychology, which regulates psychology as lpalanche profession.
Unfortunately, the Council does not record this data nor does it provide related information such as type of interest group e. Moreover, while efforts are underway in Brazil to establish a certification process for behavior analysts, presently there are no well-established certifications for either behavior analysts or psychoanalysts. Accordingly, as an alternative measure, albeit less reliable, the memberships of BA and psychoanalytic associations were tallied.
Despite their similar numbers, however, it is possible that studies of psychoanalysts are more prevalent in peer-reviewed journals than those of behavior analysts.
As previously stated, approximately articles were published in Brazilian BA journals over the last decade. Using these numbers as denominators, the aggregate of peer-reviewed psychoanalytic articles was followed by 0.
Although their community size and academic production are similar, it could be the case that psychoanalysts are more engaged in addressing the public and disseminating their findings than behavior analysts. The marked difference in dissemination across disciplines is further highlighted when comparing the percentage of articles by disciplines directly related to behavior analysis, viz.
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At the same time, the fact that most psychoanalytic articles were written by authors from disciplines not directly related to psychoanalysis reflects its broader cultural acceptance. This phenomenon is not limited to Brazil.
For instance, in their analysis of thousands of digital books, Michel et al. This prevalence provides compelling evidence for the imperative of disseminating the findings of BA research to a broader audience that extends beyond the comparatively limited readership of scientific journals.
In this sense, as Normand aptly described, behavior analysis has redefined psychology and redesigned its experiments. As it has renamed and expanded the vocabulary of psychology, its scientific precision and specialized lexicon may render dissemination of its research more challenging than that of other psychological disciplines Hineline, Nevertheless, interacting with mass media is an increasing practice within sciences with comparable rigor and terminology, such as epidemiology and stem cell research Peters et al.
If behavior analysts agree that disseminating a scientific explanation of human behavior that enables us to address social challenges, such as climate change, effectively is a worthwhile endeavor, they are faced with two options.
They can bemoan the fact that popular culture disregards their views and thus perpetuates the isolation specter, or they can adopt a proactive approach to remedy the situation by disseminating their findings more broadly. Indeed, as Carrp.
The reason why Brazilian behavior analysts do not publish outside the box, however, does not lie primarily in their unawareness of BA isolation, potential media, or dissemination strategies but in the absence of contingencies of reinforcement for dissemination.
Given the publish-or-perish imperative Waters,professors and postgraduate students, who are in optimal position to disseminate their research, tend to focus on peer-reviewed publications, i. In the spirit of Don Quixote, we could propose structural changes to academic practices that would promote more universal dissemination. However, the authors believe there are three practical ways to attain this end within direct reach of Brazilian behavior analysts.
First, researchers laplancye other disciplines should be invited more frequently to BA conferences, as is done in ABAI conferences. Second, psicanalis of BA isolation and dissemination strategies should be included in postgraduate curricula.
Are Brazilian Behavior Analysts Publishing Outside the Box? A Survey of General Science Media
Third, course credits should be awarded for such dissemination. The present study indicates that there is ample room for disseminating behavior analysis in Brazil.
The authors strongly recommend that behavior analysts take a close look into contingencies of reinforcement that promote dissemination and take advantage of the previously cited studies to initiate serious and sustained outreach outside the box. Although this may prove to be an arduous task, it is clearly worth the effort and will undoubtedly generate unforeseen dividends.
The authors wish psicznalise express their appreciation to Robson N. Cruz for his insights in behavior analysis isolation history and to three anonymous reviewers for their careful analysis. All authors have made equal contributions to the research and are equally responsible for it. There is no potential conflicts of interests, financial or not, regarding the research.