Wild lettuce (Launaea taraxacifolia) is grown mostly in West Africa, it is call “Efo Yarin” in Yoruba Language of Nigeria. This plant is commonly used as leafy. Abstract Some baseline information on the growth of Launaea taraxacifolia (Willd ) Amin Ex. C Jeffrey was gathered. Rhizomes sprouted within 10 days. African Lettuce (Launaea taraxacifolia) Displays Possible Anticancer Effects and Herb-Drug Interaction Potential by CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 Inhibition.
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C Jeffrey was gathered. Rhizomes sprouted within 10 days. Number of flowering branches and number of buds on lajnaea flowering branch among other reproductive parameters were observed. Differences were observed in the habit and growth of L. All growth parameters, except plant height, were significantly reduced by shading although this was reversed during the flowering stage. Plants in the shade did not flower at all.
It also contains some protein. The best time for the harvest garaxacifolia to be between the 6th and 8th weeks after planting. Launaea taraxacifolia Willd Amin Ex. C Jeffrey occurs mainly in the tropics. It is an erect perennial herb with leaves at the base of the stem in a rosette form. The higher leaves are auriculate and toothed with the lower leaves tapering at the base.
Apart from its being used as a common vegetable, it is also eaten by some people as a salad or cooked in soups and sauces. Medicinally, the leaves are rubbed on limbs to make children in Nigeria and Ghana walk, their leaves are also mixed with ashes to cure yaws Ayensu, The species is said to be so ubiquitously appreciated that the plant features in a Yoruba invocation for someone to become well-known in the community. In tests with animals in Ghana, leaves of L.
There are no records of production Adebisi, It is mostly collected from the wild even in the rural areas and taraxacifolua be found in the local market, cooked and rolled into balls for sale. Only a fraction of leafy vegetables are known to urban dwellers and contribute to their diet. Not much is documented about the growth of L. It is also known to have low seed viability Adegbite, Asexual method of propagation is adopted by sprouting vigorously from proliferating rhizomes.
Agronomic research as well as research into its cultivation as a vegetable, are necessary.
The objectives of this study were therefore to obtain and document baseline information on the growth and development pattern of L.
Rhizomes for planting were obtained from Launaea taraxacifolia plants growing in the wild. About 40 roots of approximately 10 cm in length Van Epenhuijsen, and about 1. The alunaea were then continuously watered until well established before transferring taraaxacifolia individual pots. Weeding of the area was carried lanuaea periodically in order to minimize competition of any type.
The pots were divided into two groups. The first group was placed under the shade of a Lagerstroemia llaunaea tree. The second group was placed in the open under the direct impact of sunlight. The seedlings were transplanted into individual pots two weeks after planting. Morphological parameters such as plant height, leaf length, leaf area and number of leaves were observed and measurements taken for all the lxunaea at 2 weeks interval.
Leaf area was obtained by multiplying leaf length L and leaf width W the widest point of the leaf blade by a factor 0. At the onset of flower bud formation, a number of observations were made daily. This included time of bud formation, distribution of flowers on the flowering stalk and number of flowering branches.
For proximate analysisthe fresh leaves were macerated in a mortar with Na 2 CO 3 in order to aid digestion Table 1.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
The student t-test was used for statistical analysis. The 24 rhizomes planted on the nursery bed produced 40 new shoots on sprouting after 10 days of cultivation in the screen house Fig.
It was observed that the txraxacifolia generated from thicker rhizomes developed more rapidly than plants generated from thinner rhizomes.
Fifty eight percent of the plants under direct sunlight generated new shoots from their rhizomes while there was no sprouting of new shoots in plants growing under the shade. Generally, the height for all the plants under direct sunlight and shade increased throughout the duration of the experiment.
From the 4th week 28 DAP: Days after Planting to the 6th week 42 DAP of the experiment, the shaded plants were significantly taller than those not shaded. But from the 8th week 56 DAP till maturity 84 DAPthe plants under direct sunlight were significantly taller than the shaded plants Fig. At 14 days after planting, there was no significant difference in the number of leaves between the direct sunlight and shaded plants.
From the 4th week till maturity, number of leaves was significantly higher in plants under direct sunlight than those under shade Fig. The leaf areas of the plants under direct sunlight were also significantly higher than those under the shade throughout the experimental period Fig.
Flowering was totally inhibited in plants that were subjected to shade till the end of the experiment while plants under direct sunlight began to flower from the 8th week 56 DAP. At the onset of flowering, 56 DAP, the number of leaves produced by the plants was reduced and there was sudden increase in the height of the plants. The number of buds produced on each shoot was very high ranging from initially 62 DAP to about buds later 74 DAP.
The number of flowering branches on maturity 80 DAP ranges from nine to ten per plant.
It was also observed that frequency of the buds on each flowering branch ranges taraxacifloia four to six between distances of 10 cm from the base and 10 to 12 between distances of 10 cm from the apex. The achenes were observed to be of two kinds; black achenes which appear to be filled and with embryos but fewer in number and appear only in flowers with pappus ready for dispersal and the light brown seeds that are smaller and numerous Fig.
The number of seeds from each flower varies from 20 to 22 with an average of two to three black and 18 to 20 light brown seeds. At the end of the experiment, the average dry weight of the rhizomes of plants under the shade was 0. The success of the plant despite the low fertility rate of seeds can be attributed to the high efficiency of sprouting of the rhizome.
Rhizome diameter as small as 1. However, rhizomes with bigger diameters 1. The study shows that the height of Launaea taraxacifolia plant subjected to light stress was higher than that of the plant under direct sunlight at the initial stage of the experiment.
Reductions in laynaea availability and in the ratio of red-to-far red light have been reported to be associated with increases in stem elongation Brainard et al. Boyd and Murray also reported in a related experiment that plant height increases with decreasing irradiance until photosynthate production becomes limiting. In shaded plants, stem elongation continued throughout taraxacifolai experimental period. This result suggests that light stress begins from the 4th week 28 DAP.
The number of leaves and leaf area of the plants under direct sunlight was higher than those of the plants under shade from the 4th week 28 DAP to the 12th week 84 DAP. The lower number of leaves produced in the lanuaea plants may be attributed to an increased use of existing reserves to maintain growth during the period of declining photosynthate production. According to Craker et al. Panetta reported that root systems developed more slowly and were smaller in shaded than in unshaded seedlings of Baccharis halimifolia.
This corresponds to observations in this experiment where the average dry weight of the rhizomes of plants under the shade was significantly smaller compared to that in full sunlight indicating the necessity of light for below ground vegetative parts either through increased photosynthate production for partitioning to below ground vegetative production or otherwise. De Simone et al. There was also no initiation of root under far red light which is characteristic of shade condition.
The moisture content of the rhizomes grown under shade was higher than those grown in full sunlight suggesting limited evapotranspiration in the shade plants. Flower production and even production of viable seeds has been reported in other plants grown in taraxacofolia Steckel et al.
Launaea taraxacifolia – Useful Tropical Plants
The observation in this investigation suggests that each species has a minimum irradiance level at which taraxaclfolia can produce flower and vegetative buds and below which flowering launqea not occur, although sparse flowering may occur at irradiance levels slightly higher launaeq the minimum. Photoperiod, light intensity and light quality influence plant growth and development from seed germination to flowering.
Oluwatosin reported no significant differences in number of flower buds in Synedrella nodiflora for both shaded and unshaded condition, produced flower buds was higher in unshaded species in Ageratum conyzoides while flower buds production was higher in unshaded species of Tridax procumbens.
The two kinds of seeds observed in the plant are not actually 2 types taaraxacifolia seeds but, rather the bigger black seeds appears to be the fully matured ones which may taraxaccifolia may not be fertilized. The brown seeds are most likely immature seeds. This phenomenon is probably due to the effect of prolonged vegetative propagation Olorode, Personal Communication. More assimilates are partitioned for vegetative growth and genotype tends to be fixed because of vegetative propagation.
The chemical analysisshowed that L. The Phosphorus contained in L. Like all lettuce it has very high water content with very few calories. Generally, vegetables are considered to be a good dietary source of faraxacifolia, carbohydrate and protein Mosha et al. Launaea taraxacifolia is no exception. In conclusion, it was observed that Launaea taraxacifolia requires minimum inputs for its growth especially under direct sunlight.
Effects of shading have been quantified supporting the statement of Ayodele that Launaea taraxacifolia plants need a sunny place and do not tolerate shade. The plant provides a readily available source of Phosphorus and Iron required by the body system and is relatively inexpensive compared to common vegetables like Telfairia occidentalis or its widely cultivated relative Lactuca sativa.
It is also a good source of dietary fibre. The best time for harvest appears to be between the 42nd and 56th days after planting i. Its cultivation should therefore be encouraged. A limitation to cultivation and domestication of this plant that has such potentials is a lack of variability imposed by vegetative mode of propagation.
This will enhance variability and therefore selection and improvement through breeding. Embryo raraxacifolia technique has been proposed as a solution to the seed tafaxacifolia problem of the crop.
Therefore, in vitro propagation protocol for this crop is being investigated. We will like to acknowledge the help of Prof.
Omotoye Olorode and Dr. Faluyi who provided valuable inputs at various stages of the investigation. Biosystematics studies of some species of the Tribe Cichorieae Asteraceae in Nigeria.